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    Point of View

    Point of View Every Story has a Moral A story that we tell is told from a certain point of view which means a certain viewing point, a particular attitude or way of considering a matter. Every story has a moral because it is written or told from a certain point of view. If another person told the same story it would have another moral or point of view. Stories never tell the truth because they contain a particular person’s point of view; a point of view that can be biased. Plato, therefore, considered a poet to be a liar and untrustworthy. Making Shifts in the Point of View It…

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    Types of Criticism

    * Moral Criticism, Dramatic Construction (~360 BC-present) * Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelian Criticism (1930s-present) * Psychoanalytic Criticism, Jungian Criticism(1930s-present) * Marxist Criticism (1930s-present) * Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present) * Structuralism/Semiotics (1920s-present) * Post-Structuralism/Deconstruction (1966-present) * New Historicism/Cultural Studies (1980s-present) * Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present) * Feminist Criticism (1960s-present) * Gender/Queer Studies (1970s-present) Sociological criticism: Like historical criticism, sociological criticism examines literature in the cultural, economic, and political context in which it is written or received. This type of criticism may analyze the social content of a literary work—the cultural, economic, or political values a particular text implicitly or explicitly expresses. Reader-response criticism: This type of criticism attempts to describe what happens in…

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    I Age

    I age. The world seems not to fit on to a page. Each of life’s phases makes it a different drama stage; With different exits and entries that enrage. But life’s not solid, It flows into various shapes and moulds, Nothing is serious, nothing long-lasting – A blend of serious seeming stuff with comic endings. Life’s best for fiction. Stories grip for a while and then Fadeaway into forgotten-land. Fortunate are those That translate themselves into fiction, with success. For then at least some small part of them gets told And growing old is then not just an operation table.

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    A Great Book Proposal

    Writing a Great Book Proposal Book proposals are needed for nonfiction. After your book idea has settled firmly in your mind and after you’ve got down to the basics; the structure, the chapters, the genre or category of books it will compete with, and when you’ve written three or more chapters, you may want to approach an agent or publisher so that you know whether you are on firm ground or not. This is the time to write a great book proposal. A book proposal needs to tell the agent or publisher where all the readers for your unique book-idea can be found. In other words, what kind of market…

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    Authors Know your Publishers

    Authors know your publishers before you form opinions about them. When you take the risk of publishing something that you have written, you open yourself to a number of possibilities. You could begin to get known or you could only imagine that you’re beginning to get known. You could become a target of those that don’t agree with you or you could get into the hearts of readers. Earning much is a remote possibility, earning the displeasure of others seems to be more likely. It can take several years before publishers begin to take you seriously and sometimes they take you seriously only initially and then think of you as…

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    Fredric Jameson

    Fredric Jameson Book author: Adam Roberts Fredric Jameson has been called ‘probably the most important cultural critic writing in English today’. He has an extraordinary range of analysis, which takes in everything from architecture to science fiction, from the nineteenth-century novel to cinema, from philosophy to experimental avant-garde art. This range, allied to a powerful and penetrating critical intelligence, constitutes the most exhilarating thing about reading Jameson. This study aims to provide a compact though elementary introduction to the work of Jameson, and explain why he is crucial to our understanding of contemporary literature and cultural studies. If we want a sense of why Jameson is important, and of the…

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    Paul Ricoeur

    PA U L R I C O E U R Author: Karl Simms Paul Ricoeur is one of the most important critical thinkers to emerge in the twentieth century. His unique ‘theory of reading’ or hermeneutics extends far beyond the reading of literary works to build into a theory for the reading of ‘life’. As a result of this, such works as Philosophy of the Will, The Rule of Metaphor, Time and Narrative and Oneself as Another have impacted upon the widest range of disciplines, from literary criticism and philosophy to history, religion, legal studies and politics. In this stimulating guide, Karl Simms explores Ricoeur’s most influential ideas, touching upon…

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    Jean Baudrillard

    Baudrillard Author: Richard J Lane The dominance of Hegel in postwar France led initially to the prevalence of Marxism and existentialism. Hyppolite, who translated Hegel, was also the teacher of some of the new thinkers, such as Derrida and Foucault. They were interested in different ways of intersecting reactions to Hegel with structuralism. A key figure for the new thinkers was Bataille, whose theories of “unproductive expenditure” and excessive behaviour were aimed at countering the Hegelian dialectic. Baudrillard regarded the political unrest of May 1968, with student and worker uprisings, as something that tested the opposing theories of Marxism and structuralism. He suggested that the two theories needed to be…

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    Writing a Play and a Novel

    Writing a Play and writing a Novel is Different Writing a play and a novel are two different ball games. A playwright need not be a good novelist and vice versa. Whereas the novelist needs to tell a story via a plot inlaid into a narrative, a dramatist has to show a story through dialogue given to characters on a stage. It may seem that writing a play is simpler than a novel because it seems a shorter text than a novel’s, but it can often be more difficult. Writing concisely is definitely more of an accomplishment than a loose dabbling in words. The novel gives more freedom to the…

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    Making Characters Memorable

    Making Characters Memorable One of the acid tests of a fiction writer is to make characters memorable. They should not merely be puppets but should have the rarer merit to come alive in the reader’s imagination. Some significant theorists have believed that social types can make interesting characters, and they can perhaps, but will rarely stay on in the mind as individuals. Memorable characters result from an author’s keen observation of life and people and an acute insight into human psychology. If an author believes in social types, like T. S. Eliot does, they should rather make it a blending of the social type with a psychological type. This means…